Shooting Range Design
When it comes to having a great understanding of a shooting range design, it is always a good idea to first learn the process involved with building your own shooting range design and/or custom outdoor gun range design. So on that note, Spire Ranges has taken the liberty to share some amazing information below to help you better appreciate all of the intricacies associated with building a shooting range design.
A custom outdoor or shooting range design, firing range, or gun range for your commercial or private property use is a technical facility designed for firearms qualifications and/or training. Some shooting range designs are operated by armed forces or law enforcement agencies, though the majority of ranges are privately owned and cater to recreational shooters. Supervisory personnel are responsible for ensuring that all weapon safety policies along with government regulations are followed closely at all times.
A shooting range design can be indoor or outdoor and may be confined to certain kinds of firearms; for example: handguns or rifles. They can also specialize in certain shooting sports like skeet shooting or Air Pistol/Rifle. Most indoor ranges confine the use of certain strong calibers, rifles, or completely automatic weapons.
In urban places, many shooting range designs will undoubtedly be indoors. Indoor ranges offer protection from inclement weather conditions and can be operated around the clock under controlled environmental conditions. Outdoor shooting ranges are typically found far away from populated regions due to concerns of overall safety, noise pollution and dirt contamination.
Indoor firing ranges are usually constructed as standalone structures, even though they may be housed in larger buildings in the basement or such. The basic components of the majority of indoor firing ranges consist of firing lanes, targets, and a bullet trap/backstop. Design considerations can fluctuate depending on the planned use, but they all must address the requirements for general operation as well as to provide ballistic protection, safety controls, proper ventilation, acoustic isolation along with appropriate lighting.
Shooting range walls are usually constructed of poured concrete, precast concrete, or masonry cube. The walls have to be impenetrable and provide adequate ballistic protection from stray bullets and back splatter. Floors are constructed from compact reinforced concrete with a smooth surface finish. Floors are usually slanted slightly from up-range supporting the bullet trap downrange to allow for improved maintenance and cleaning.
Indoor firing range roofs are usually constructed from steel joists or pre-cast concrete panels with a sleek flat surface that will redirect misfired bullets, facilitate maintenance, and prevent guide build-up. Roof baffles are installed at a 25 to 30 degree angle to protect ceilings, lighting fixtures, ventilation ducts, and every other un-protected element from stray bullets. Deflectors are much like baffles but usually are not covered with plywood as they can be installed either vertically or horizontally and therefore are used to redirect stray bullets from harmful fittings and elements inside the firing assortment including doors, windows, and ventilation fittings.
Control rooms or stations house the fundamental controls for the shooting range design equipment, communication, lights, and security. The controls are operated by the designated official responsible for operation and management. The control station needs to provide an unobstructed line of sight of the firing lanes and all shooters. Control stations are usually constructed of concrete cubes with bulletproof observation windows.
Backstops and bullet traps have been used to absorb the energy from your bullet and capture it to prevent overflight beyond the allotted space. Backstops come in an assortment of designs and therefore are usually constructed of impenetrable metal plates. The thickness of the plates and the materials used are based on the velocity and energy levels of the projectiles that are fired. Many contemporary backstops consist of detachable tempered steel plates that deflect the bullets into other metal plates to disperse their energy. The plates have to be resistant to penetration, abrasion, and metal fatigue. The backstops direct the bullets to a collection region in front of the snare, or for high-energy projectiles, at the trunk of the trap.
Most indoor home firing ranges provide additional spaces including a restroom, cleaning room for weapons, a classroom and/or office space, a lounge, storage area and a maintenance room (if space is available and the homeowner wants to run a business out of their basement). Passageways are traditionally used to physically isolate the firing from the adjoining places. Some indoor/outdoor firing gun ranges are equipped with shooting booths to provide shooters with a defined firing space and to reduce the potential hazard from misfires and ejected bullet cartridges from adjoining shooters.
Shooting booths are made of partitions or panels which can be acoustically treated to lower the effect of weapons discharge on other shooters. The stalls are sometimes armed with communication or target-operation equipment; target or booth lighting controls; shelves for holding weapons and bullets or to prevent shooters from going down range, and equipment for practicing shooting from behind a barrier. The firing line is usually marked orange or red and runs along the down-range edge of the shooting booths. Some gun ranges have motion sensors that can alert you when a shooter passes the line during the shooting.
Target systems consist of a target plus a target control system. Targets for indoor home firing ranges are usually a paper sheet or piece of corrugated cardboard with a printed target image on the sheet. The target provider system allows the shooter to operate much more efficiently and securely by transporting the target within the firing lane. The target control system allows the shooter to automatically control the operation and movement of the targets by way of a central control station in the control booth or through a remote switch that can be operated in the shooting booths.
A critical component in the design and appropriate operation of the indoor firing range is the ventilation system. Appropriate ventilation decreases a shooters vulnerability to airborne lead particles as well as other combustion-able byproducts. Ventilation systems consist of supply and exhaust air systems and associated ductwork.
Air can be provided via a perforated wall or vertical air diffusers mounted at ceiling height. Airflow along the firing line ought to be no more than 0.38 m/s (75 feet every minute, fpm) with the absolute minimum satisfactory stream of 0.25 m/s (50 fpm). Air is typically exhausted at or behind the bullet trap. Some firing ranges are designed to have many exhaust points downrange to maintain down-range flow and desirable velocities at the firing line. The exhaust system needs to be designed to provide minimum duct air velocities of 13 to15 m/s (2,500 to 3,000 fpm).
The equipment and designs for the ventilation systems are varied, however many have several supply or exhaust fans. Very often, the air-flow rate required by the firing range and space constraints for the fans dictate the amount and kinds of exhausts. Most shooting range designs provide 100% outside air into the firing range and exhaust all of the air back outside of the building. However, some ventilation systems have been designed to recirculate some of the exhaust air to the supply air system to conserve energy; especially in extreme climates. For safety sake, the exhaust air is always filtered before being emptied outside the building or recirculated into the source system.
Lighting in the shooting range design consists of: control stall, orange/red space, shooting booth, along with downrange lighting systems. Control booth lighting is usually manually controlled and consists of overall lighting and low-level lighting used during particular shooting conditions. Lighting of the stalls is typical ceiling-level lighting and can usually be controlled manually or from the central controls. Lights downrange of your shooting line are usually spotlights used to illuminate the targets at a variety of distances down-range of the booth.
Safety control systems have been installed to protect the shooters during malfunction or emergency situations. These systems could include warning lights, alarm bells, and air-flow and filtration monitors.
Outdoor home designed shooting ranges are used for longer-distance shooting up to 1,200 yards. Training might also require exposure to the elements like wind or rain. Outdoor competition shooting is preferred under benign weather conditions; but conditions could vary. Competition is only abandoned when safety becomes an issue.
Outdoor shooting range plans are designed to contain all fired shots. This necessitates a higher retaining wall behind the target line called a back-stop or stop-butt. A backstop comprises an earth mound, sandbag barrier or specially designed funnel-shaped cubes to catch and prevent misaligned shots, errant projectile ricochets, or shots going beyond the boundaries of the shooting selection. Most outdoor ranges confine the maximum grade size and projectile energy based on the design specification of their range. Some target-shooting ranges have separate facilities specialized in the use of higher-powered firearms like the .50 caliber.
Outdoor ranges require less cleaning and maintenance compared to indoor ranges. However, in spite of the natural ventilation of outdoor firing ranges; some outdoor collections have ballistic baffles over-head, and concrete walls and structures on both sides that can cause the air to stagnate and contribute to increasing exposure to lead and noise. Consequently, operators of home owned outdoor shooting ranges might consider adding sound transmission baffles, absorptive materials, and natural vegetation to lessen noise emission.
Small-bore (.22 long rifle grade) gun ranges are typically 50 meters to accommodate the Olympic 50 m Rifle event, but they can stretch to 200 meters. These collections are found across the globe as part of varied cadet shooting programs, sometimes reduced to 25 meters. Often called miniature gun ranges, they offer great training for marksmanship using lower-cost ammunition imparting significantly less recoil or if assembled into a higher specification, can be used for sighting in full-bore rifles using specially designed ladder targets.
Target shooting range for larger-caliber centerfire rifles are no shorter than 100 meters, except in the case of Zero ranges used for setting or checking the receptive or aperture areas of the rifle. Military ranges are typically at least 500 to 1,000 meters to safely accommodate the scope of most rifles. Outdoor ranges can be as long as 1,800 meters and typically accommodate hunters and sportsman participating in sports such as the 300 m Standard Rifle, metallic silhouette or benchrest shooting.
Specialist ranges cater for assorted clay pigeon shooting events require special layouts and equipment. There is no shooting range design too difficult for us to customize for your personal needs. Give Spire Ranges a call today!
The firing point normally is at a defined point on a level and flat placement. Outdoor ranges without a covered firing point are usually on a slightly raised, flattened mound. Outdoor ranges with a covered firing point are usually concrete or made similar to that of a tarmac. Outdoor military range firing points usually are not covered and may have other configurations such as: sloping, a sand base or a pit in the ground. The firing point cover can be as simple as a tent frame with only a roof (to keep off rain or sunshine), to a substantial building with appropriate apertures to shoot.
Home shooting range design targets are usually built of a plastic core flute, sometimes with a canvas or hessian rear on the bigger long-range types. Most acceptable targets are a solid black ring on the white background. The ring might have scoring points highlighted. Targets of other shapes may be used in pistol (handgun) target shooting. Reactive targets allow shooters to readily establish bullet attacks. This allows shooters to better their skills by being ready to switch up their aiming point to where the bullet changed the target.
Those who decide to use military surplus rifles in competition on firing ranges at set distances include bolt and semiautomatic actions, with targets used as per military standards, current, and historic. Exactly the same is applicable for the matches they take. Other target types include a metal plate that is knocked over by the bullet like in the air rifle game of field target or handgun discipline of IPSC and stationary metal plates of scaled animal outlines on which the bullet strikes the mark and the ones that indicate the paint that is painted over again after scoring.
The backstop is your area behind the target where the bullets have passed the target. Outdoor and sometimes indoor ranges have ground or sand butts. Indoor ranges can use detachable plates with fans, often with a rubber curtain where the bullet passes and is then stopped by a metal plate. Ranges without automatic target placements sometimes have concrete trenches whereby personnel lift and retract, mark, and replace targets. They should be of sufficient height to capture the exact projectile intended for the target and any ricochet that might occur from the projectile striking the floor of the target range fairway. Usually the top is at 5 degrees in elevation from your 100 m firing line.
Outdoor shooting ranges sometimes have wind flags, positioned between the firing line (wherever the shooters are) and the targets. Shooters observe these flags to make an estimate of the wind velocity, which is subsequently converted into a lateral minute of angle point of target corrections or, alternatively, windage hold-off corrections. The flag method is the most common method used to estimate wind velocity. A flag blowing in the wind will naturally blow off from the flagpole, with the angle of the base of the flag to the flagpole increasing with increasing wind speed.
To estimate the wind speed in miles; the angle in degrees between the base of the flag to the flagpole at the position between the shooter and the target is divided from 4. For instance, an angle of 60 degrees between the base of the flag and a flagpole would be estimated to get a 15-mph windspeed. The clock method is then used to determine the full value, 50 percent values, or no value corrections in a minute of angle for the wind. Aligning the target at the 12 o’clock position with the 6 o’clock position being directly behind the shot; winds at 3 or 9 o’clock are equated to a complete value. Winds at 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11 o’clock are equated to half value, and winds at 12 and 6 o’clock are equated without value.
The minute of angle correction (whole value) is subsequently commonly estimated as (Meters/100) × Wind (mph)/C, where C is a constant. The constant C equals 1-5 for ranges from 100 to 500 meters, 14 for 600 meters, 13 for 700 to 800 meters, 12 for 900 meters, also 11 for 1000 meters.
For full-value winds, this full windage correction is used. For half-value winds, the minute of correction in windage given by this formula is halved; for no-value winds, no minute of angle correction is required.
Multiple flags are required for two reasons. The wind speed closest to the midpoint of the range has got the greatest effect on the projectile. In addition, the wind at one part of the range will not continually be the same at another area of the shooting range. Wind flags are not always actual flags; but sometimes streamers are used or small triangle flags, or even pin wheels. Facets like the amount and strength of the wind determines the best kind of flag outcomes.
Regardless of whether shooting range designs or outdoor gun ranges; you should always wear eye protection along with hearing protection (ear muffs or ear plugs) at all times when within the defined boundaries of the firing range. Anyone nearby is vulnerable to gunpowder discharge or cartridge primers, that can be inhaled or can burn or damage skin or clothing. Additionally, the discharging of firearms in indoor home ranges can develop noise levels in excess of 140 dB.
To combat this, it is commonly recommended that all those inside the range double up on their ear protection using the two earplugs and over-the-head ear muffs to guard bystanders from sound vulnerability. Indoor ranges can be particularly unsafe, because of high accidents and increased noise ailments at which the design or management is not of the quality conducive to best practices that Spire Ranges always adheres to.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) issued a notice that presents 5 case reports documenting lead and noise statements; and also examines firing assortment operations, exposure assessment, and control methods, existing regulations, along with exposure requirements and guidelines. Additional information about reducing harmful exposures within indoor firing ranges can be found at NIOSH.
In 2013, The National Academy of Sciences published a report related to health risks associated with firing ranges involving recurrent lead exposure. The report highlighted the shortcomings of direct exposure specifications and advocated The Department of Defense to update its own guidelines and practices for protecting shooters from direct exposure on gun ranges.
Shooting ranges carry significant risk of lead poisoning and are therefore a public health concern. Safety areas within a shooting range design is extremely important. When building your own indoor firing range at home, please consider incorporating a small protective area for shooters to be able to handle unloaded firearms. Safety areas are frequently used in lively shooting sport disciplines and PPC 1500, and can for instance be used to pack, unpack, or holster a gun, cleaning or repair, dry firing and training with empty magazines.
In some countries, no license or advanced training beyond merely gun familiarization and range guidelines familiarization is required for using a shooting range design. In other countries, participants must be part of an organized club and must maintain licenses for possession of individual firearms. However, a common requirement is that the shooter must be of legal age (or have a guardian present) prior to shooting. If you feel inadequate and would like to obtain further training; there are an array of safety courses, concealed carry courses, along with advanced-level training in firearms techniques, for a cost available to you. In the majority of scenarios, you may consider any number of courses and qualify for a certification as well.
If you are ready to build your own custom shooting range design or perhaps you have your sights on an outdoor shooting range design, give Spire Ranges a call today. We are the premier experts when it comes to customized personal and commercial shooting range designs!
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